Tools methods employed in pest management


Hi!! Welcome to the agrifunda . today post about tools are the methods employed in the pest management. In this post so we are going to look at what are the different methods or the tools used in managing the pest and keeping its population below the economic threshold level. As you know that there are several ways in which a pest can be actually suppressed and we need to employ all these methods so not resorting to any one methods which is going to cause a lot of problem in future. So let us look at these methods. So we have several methods for keeping the pest so or containing the pests such as, you can see it can be categorized as Cultural methods or the Physical methods or Mechanical methods and Biological method, Legal and the Chemical method. of employed in pest management Let us look at these methods one by one.


Tools methods employed in pest management



Tools methods employed in pest management

culture method :

So what is the cultural method. The cultural method is nothing but a kind of an agronomic practice, that a farmer practices for growing his crop we can say that this is a method where without making any kind of an additional expenditure so for managing the pest. Through any of the agronomic pest so, which actually not only helps in improving the crop condition but at the same time so it is going to affect the pest population and so manages it. So what are the various techniques or the cultural practices that a farmer follows. As you are aware that deep summer ploughing.
This is a very common practice that a farmer practices for a fine tillage of the soil to keep the good aeration and as well which going to help a very good plant vigor. But at the same time so this type of practice will also exposes some of the, the pest stages which are hidden in the soil or resting in the soil, such as the pupae or the egg stage or whatever the stage for that matter. So this will lead to the destruction of the pest before the crop actually raised.
Then putting some kind of a Bird perches in a cropping area so which allows some of these insectivorous birds to perch on it so that they can actually pick these insects and then eat them.



Trap crop:

Then trap crops, trap crops are nothing but so growing one of the crops so which is very much attractant to the past when compared to the main crop. So like that, so we can actually what is called as an attract the pest to a particular the trap crop and so that the management is going to be very very easy. Similarly, the intercropping, the intercropping here is actually means growing to a more crop in a definite proportion. And these crops are like of a different groups so that the pest which comes on the main crop so is not going to come on this inter crop, and this inter crop will act as a barrier so, for this pest to colonize on the main crop. Similarly, we also have other cultural practices such as Mixed cropping and then Crop rotation which is nothing but growing the crop so one susceptible crop followed by the non host crop.
So which again disturb or disrupt the pest population. Then the destruction of the alternative host is another very important like  such as weeds which act as alternative host so they can be actually been destroyed, so that we reduce the pest population. Then at altering the date of sowing or the planting. This is again a very important cultural practices that Balanced nutrition, balanced irrigation then the earthing up kind of a practice. So these things are all we're not going to do keeping in view of the pest management but in the view of the agronomic practices but at the same time they take care of destructing or destroying the pest population.


 Physical Method:


Then the second method will be the physical method. The physical method includes the use of certain physical sources in order to either monitor it or combat the pest. Say for example so we have the Light traps. The light traps such as using an electric bulb or using a Petromax or some kind of a bonfire so what it does is basically so it attracts a lot of insects to these traps and then kill them. So majority of you know the pest belongs to Lepidoptera.
So there is moths and moths are very active in the night, it will be very active, busy in mating and as well as laying eggs on the crop, will get attracted to these traps and so these adults are going to be killed. Similarly, as you know that on the storage condition draining of the grain is a very important practice to kill or to destroy the pest population.
Then Hot water treatment is another important practice so which actually is employed before sowing to the seeds and so this is  going to destroy many pests. And of course what is called as a storing the corn in the food grains or the cop either in the cold storage or in a controlled atmosphere are some of the methods in the physical methods.

Mechanical method

Then other mechanical methods we basically look at the what is called as an employing the labor in collection and destruction of the various pests groups or the pest stages such as, an egg mass or the larvae or sometimes the adults. So which actually helps in reducing the pest population in the field itself. So another important mechanical methods such as the pruning of the plant. Pruning the affected part will leads to the destruction of the pest or use of the screens or the barriers especially to the fruits will protect them from the pest or extraction of the adult the pest from the crop. So these are some of the important the mechanical practices or the mechanical ways by which the pest can be actually controlled.


Biological method


Then the another important method is a biological method. See as we already know that these pests do have a lot of natural enemies on them either in nature so or which is artificially produced or released in the field are going to suppress the pest population.
So better thing is that to create an environment in the cropping ecosystem which helps them or protects the natural enemies and makes them to colonize on the crop so which they can take care of it. So these natural enemies may be there may be predators or parasitoids or even the microbial pathogens are going to suppress the pest very effectively.

Then the another important method is under biological control is the plant-based insecticides. So there are several the crops or the plants which have the insecticidal property. So we know that the name for example is one very commonly used a bio pesticide. So and of various parts of these names are used as an insecticide and so this is going to kill or suppress the pest population very effectively and similarly,
we have also use the tobacco as a nicotine has an insecticidal property and we know that the Pyrethrum the insecticide which is prepared out of Chrysanthemum and the Rotenone are the insecticidal property which are derived from the Derris plant. Similarly, the pongamia, mahua, custard apple seeds Vitex nigundo, leaves so, all these are going to be a quite effective as they are a very effective bio pesticide source for managing the pest.
So these are all the different the ways by which the say for example the neem so, which is going to be used and the various the pest in a different agro-ecosystem , be it in the defoliator or the sucking pest or it might be an internal borer so the name is something like a common bio pesticide being used.




Microbial insecticides


Similarly, the microbial insecticide as mentioned like the virus. So we see the virus infected on the pest here and the bacteria and as well as the fungi so which are considered to be quite effective in combating the pest population.

Legal method

Now of course, legal method is a way where we are going to prevent the entry of an any new pest so from a foreign land to our land. So we do have a lot of the quarantine stations which are stationed in many seaports, airports and as well as in land ports. So in order to regulate and as well as restrict the movement of the pest from one area to other area. So with this also we can prevent a lot of movement of the pest and also establishment of the pest inside.

Chemical method

And of course the chemical method so which is a last result we can say that even with all these kinds of practices if the pest becomes serious and leads to an outbreak kind of a situation then as a last result we can always have an option to employ the synthetic insecticides. So, nowadays we have many insecticides or synthetic insecticides which are quite pest specific of course eco- friendly, it's a green molecules we call that those can be employed and manage the pest population. So, all these methods needs to be used judiciously, intelligently as and when it is required so that a combination of these methods will not only bring the pest population below the injurious level but also keep the environment and health of the non-target organism so clean and as well as safe.



So in the next as we start dealing with the crops and the management. The crop, pest and their management. So, we need to look at the employing of any of these methods or the combination of these methods in managing the pest.

Thank you.

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