Sugarcane Pests and their Management by agrifunda



Hi friends. Welcome to agrifunda. Today topic is Pests of Sugarcane and their Management’. Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop grown in India. The crop is prone to attack by number of insect as well as non- insect pests. So far more than 100 fresh species have been recorded on this crop. Of which few of themare causing serious damage or economic damage to the crop. Some of the major pests recorded on sugarcane includes early shoot borer, internode borer, top shoot borer, root borer, root grubs and sucking pests like wooly aphids, sugarcane leaf hopper, scale insects and mealy bugs. In this lecture we will understand borers, like early shoot borers, internode borer, top shoot borer and root borer

Sugarcane Pests and their Management by agrifunda


Sugarcane Pests and their Management:

Early shoot borer:

start with early shoot borer. Early shoot borer is also called as the seedling borer. The scientific name is Chilo infuscattelus. It belongs to the family Crambidae of the order Lepidoptera. Usually it occurs in sugarcane after one month and continues up to third month. Thereby it affects the crop stand. In addition to sugarcane it also attacks other graminaceous crops as well as wheat plants. Coming to adult identification character. Forewings are pale brownish to greyish brown in color, with a series of black spots along the apical margin of forewings. And a black spot in the center. And hind wings are white in color.
Life-cycle:
 It has 4 life stages. One is egg stage, then second one is larval stage, then third one is pupal stage and fourth stage is adult. So here adult female lays eggs on leaves in groups. Eggs are flat or scale like. They are overlapping each other. Then larva. Larva has 5 pale violet longitudinal stripes on its body. Pupation occurs inside the stem at the base. It takes 35-40 days to complete a single generation.
 Nature of damage
Larva is the damaging stage. It bores into the central shoot and feeds within thereby it affects the supply of nutrients to the growing plant, causing death of the central shoot; commonly called ‘dead heart’. If you pull the dead heart, it comes out very easily. Sometimes dead heart leads to production of side shoots. Coming to ETL. 15-22% dead heart.
Management
As a preventive measure, go for trash mulching. Will reduce the damage to some extent. Then other preventive measures are. Go for earthing-up to the height of 15-30 cm. Prevents the entry of larva into the shoot and also prevents the emergence of adults, if larva entered into the shoot before earthing-up. Then go for frequent irrigation. It will also reduce the infestation to some extent. Then use resistant varieties. A few resistant varieties are available against this pest; again they are location specific.
Curative measures.
 Go for collection and destruction of affected plant parts. Specially dead hearts along with larvae and pupa. Will also reduce the incidence to some extent. Will reduce further multiplication of the pest. Then go for inundative release of egg parasitoid, that is Trichogramma chilonis @ 50,000 per hectare. Release 2 times at an interval of 10-15 days. As a last option you can go for soil application of either chlorantraniliprole @ 7.5kg per acre or fipronil @ 10kg per acre.
Sugarcane Pests and their Management by agrifunda


Top shoot borer.
Then another major pest on sugarcane is top shoot borer. Scientific name is Scirpophaga excerptalis. It belongs to family Crambidae of the order Lepidoptera. It occurs on sugarcane at later stage of the crop. The pest is very common in northern India compared to southern India. In addition to sugarcane it also attacks other graminaceous crops and wheat plants. Then coming to adult identification. Adult is creamy white colored moth, with or without a black spot on each of the front wings. Female possess crimson colored hairs at the tip of the abdomen.



Life-cycle.

It has four life stages. Egg ,larval , pupal ,and adult stage. Adult female lays eggs on leaves. Eggs are laid in masses. These eggs are covered with brownish hairs. Larva is creamy white in color. Pupation occurs inside the central shoot. It takes 47-55 days to complete a single generation.

Nature of damage:
Coming to nature of damage. Larva is the damaging stage. It enters into the central shoot and bores downwards from the top, causing ‘dead heart’ at the later stages of the crop. Further dead heart leads to production of side shoots on uppermost nodal region, giving bunchy top appearance. In addition to these symptoms, we can see the series of holes on the leaf. Coming to ETL. 15-20% dead heart.
 Management.
 Use resistant varieties. As a preventive measure, few resistant varieties are available against this pest. Again they are location specific. Then coming to curative measures. Go for collection and destruction of egg masses as well as affected plant parts; especially bunchy tops along with larvae and pupae. Then other curative measures are. Early release of egg parasitoid Trichogramma japanicum @ 50,000 per hectare. Release 2-3 times at weekly interval. As a last option you can spray Chlorantraniliprole @ 0.3ml per liter of water. If spraying is difficult, then you can go for soil application of chlorantraniliprole @ 7.5kg per acre.

Internode borer.

Then another major borer on sugarcane is internode borer. Scientific name is Chilo saccariphagus indicus. It belongs to family Crambidae of the order Lepidoptera. It occurs on sugarcane fourth month after transplanting. The pest is very common in southern India than northern India. In addition to sugarcane it also attacks other graminaceous crops as well as wheat plants. Coming to adult identification. Adult is medium sized moth; straw colored. Life-cycle, it has four life stages. One is egg stage, then larva, pupa, and adult stage. So here adult female lays eggs in groups, usually near the midrib. Then larva has four pale violet longitudinal lines on its body. Then pupation occurs in the half dried leaf sheath. It takes 40-54 days to complete a single generation.
Sugarcane Pests and their Management by agrifunda


Nature of damage
Larva is the damaging stage. It enters into the internode at nodal region and feeds within, causing as a result of which the entry hole is plugged with excreta. The inter- nodal length gets reduced. The tissues inside the cane become reddish. Even quality of juice also gets reduced. ETL, 17-28% bored internodes.
Management. 
As a preventive measure, avoid excess use of nitrogenous fertilizers. Remove water shoots periodically. Water shoots favors the multiplication of the pest. Select the variety which do not produce more number of water shoots. Lastly use resistant varieties. Few resistant varieties are available against this pest. Again they are location specific.
Curative measures.
Periodic collection and destruction of affected plant parts along with larvae and pupae, will reduce the further multiplication of the pest. Then go for de-trashing on the 150th and 210th day after planting. Will also reduce the further multiplication of the pest. Then tie the canes into a clump to prevent the lodging. Lodging here favors the multiplication of the pest. Then release egg parasitoid like Trichogramma chilonis @ 1 lakh per acre. Release 5 times at weekly interval. Then as a last you can spray newer insecticide molecules like chlorantraniliprole @ 0.3ml per liter of water.

Root borer:
Then another major pest on sugarcane is root borer. That is Polyocha depresella. It belongs to family Pyralidae of the order Lepidoptera. It occurs on sugarcane in the early stage and continues up to harvesting of the cane. The pest is very common in northern India compared to southern India. So here larva attacks the root and stalk of the plant. At early stages it causes ‘dead heart’. If we pull the dead heart, it won’t come out easily. At later stages you can see the yellowing of leaves, particularly outer leaves with stunted growth of the plant. So ultimately yields get reduced. This pest can easily managed by soil application of chlorantraniliprole @ 7.5kg per acre.

Thank You.

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